Dark-pool operators acknowledge Asian markets will be harder to crack, but they remain keen to expand in the region where they account for just 1-3 percent of trades in the larger, more liquid markets and close to zero in smaller bourses. Chi-X, a unit of Nomura and the biggest dark pool operator in Europe, last month launched a service in Japan and has plans to do the same in Singapore and Australia. Tora, a trading technology firm part-owned by Goldman Sachs, recently announced plans to set up a pan-Asian dark pool. CHI-X says it hopes to gain 5-10 percent share of the Japanese market. Bourse operators such as Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing and Singapore Exchange also benefit from market structures that make it difficult for dark pools to bypass them when clearing trades, ensuring they will continue to earn fees regardless of how orders are matched. Even in Australia, where the government has decided to expose ASX to competition from as early as next year, dark pools can expect strong resistance from the incumbent operator. To fend off competition, the ASX has taken steps, including lowering fees for matching and settling stocks trades and the creation of its own dark-pool facility that traders can use to key in orders worth more than A$1 million ($913,200).
Dark pools let brokers and fund managers place and match large orders anonymously to avoid influencing the share price. Matched trades are subsequently shown on the stock exchange while unmet orders remain invisible to other investors. In the United States, dark pools and other alternative platforms account for about 22 percent of all shares traded. And in the UK, the London Stock Exchange has lost more than a quarter of the market to alternative platforms, in particular Chi-X. NYSE, LSE and many western exchanges have since set up their own dark pools to fend off competition. Chi-X has secured a provisional licence to operate in Australia once the rules regulating new entrants are ready. Most analysts regard ASX and the Tokyo Stock Exchange, which is unlisted, as the two Asian bourses that are most vulnerable to competition from dark pools because of their high trading volumes and relatively liberal regulatory environments.
Celent, a financial services consultancy, estimates dark pools could, in the next 3-4 years, grow their market share in these markets to as much as 5 percent from the current 1 percent, well below the 30 percent levels in some European markets. Richard Murphy, ASX’s general manager for equity markets, said regulators will not allow dark pools to make similar inroads in Australia as they did in North America and Europe. Dark-pool operators also face obstacles in Hong Kong, where operators of alternative trading services are required by law to report and clear their trades through HKEx, and in Singapore where shares of listed companies are held by a central depositary owned and managed by SGX. This means that while dark pools can earn fees from matching orders, they cannot make money from clearing and settling trades either directly or by outsourcing the service to third parties.